Other Free Encyclopedias » Marriage and Family Encyclopedia » Family Social Issues » Incest/Inbreeding Taboos - Historical Review, Nature Versus Nurture, Incest/inbreeding Harm, Sibling Marriage And Human Isolates
There are several reliable examples of human communities where incest and/or close inbreeding have occurred on a regular and systematic basis. These examples include not only the well known cases of royal family incest but also incestuous practices among commoners. This social class distinction is important to note because human sociobiologists have dismissed the many instances of royal incest as exceptional and of no consequence to the debate. Cases involving commoners, where sibling or other incestuous marriages are usual and systematic, strongly challenge sociobiological suggestions that a selection mechanism exists to prevent inbreeding.
One of the more conspicuous examples of incestuous marriage involves the Roman Egyptians of the first three centuries C . E . A great deal of documentary evidence with genealogical information (mostly census records, but also personal letters, marriage contracts and other types of contracts, petitions, and documents addressed to the administrative authorities) has been unearthed and reveals that Egyptian commoners frequently practiced full brother-sister marriage (Scheidel 1996; Middleton 1962). Russel Middleton argues that there is little uncertainty in these documents. "Unlike some of the earlier types of evidence which may be subject to differing interpretations, these documents of a technical character have an 'indisputable precision'" (1962, p. 606).
It is evident that full sibling marriages accounted for 15 to 21 percent of all unions. When considering how many sibling marriages were demographically possible and socially acceptable (i.e., some families would not have children with siblings of the opposite sex that survived to marriageable age; or have children with opposite sexed siblings; or have children with siblings with the customary age differences—Egyptian marriages conventionally occurred between an older man and younger woman), we find that almost all possible brother-sister marriages were, in fact, contracted. This strongly suggests that sibling marriages were not only common but the preferred norm.
10-12-2010 · Friday, Dec 10, 2010 7:22 PM UTC The law on “consensual” incest A Columbia professor is charged over alleged sex with his adult ...
+ Firstly, the old, tired argument that “It’s not natural”. + Secondly, people claim that incest creates ‘deformed’ children. + Thirdly, and oddly, people ...
Woman, 25, jailed for incest after consensual relationship with her father, 49, with whom she has two children. Chalena Moody, 25, has pleaded guilty to having an ...
As if, when the marriage institution is abolished, concubinage, adultery, and incest , must not necessarily abound; when all the rights of humanity are annihilated ...
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Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration perpetrated against a person without that person's consent . The act may be carried out by physical force, coercion , abuse of authority or against a person who is incapable of giving valid consent, such as one who is unconscious, incapacitated, has an intellectual disability or is below the legal age of consent .    The term rape is sometimes used interchangeably with the term sexual assault. 
The rate of reporting, prosecuting and convicting for rape varies between jurisdictions. Internationally, the incidence of rapes recorded by the police during 2008 ranged, per 100,000 people, from 0.2 in Azerbaijan to 92.9 in Botswana with 6.3 in Lithuania as the median .  Rape by strangers is usually less common than rape by persons the victim knows, and male-on-male and female-on-female prison rapes are common and may be the least reported forms of rape.   
Widespread and systematic rape and sexual slavery can occur during international conflict. These practices are crimes against humanity and war crimes . Rape is also recognized as an element of the crime of genocide when committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a targeted ethnic group.
People who have been raped can be traumatized and develop posttraumatic stress disorder .  Serious injuries can result along with the risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections . A person may face violence or threats from the rapist, and, in some cultures, from the victim's family and relatives.   
People are born with "kinship detectors" that help us stay away from romantic entanglements with our siblings that could lead to evolutionary disaster, a new study suggests.
The research suggest humans automatically and unconsciously gauge the relatedness of people they meet beginning from a young age. People use at least two separate and obvious cues to determine whether someone is a brother or sister: If an individual is younger than us, we unconsciously observe how much time they’ve spent with our mothers; if they are older, we note how long we’ve lived with them.
On a "moral-wrongness" scale of 19 crimes, people ranked brother-sister sex as being below child molestation but above other, relatively minor offenses such as drug dealing and smoking marijuana. The ranked results, from most to least immoral, are below:
If through this process we conclude that an individual is a sibling , then three things happen: We’re more inclined to go the extra mile for them; our yuck-factor at the thought of even making out with them shoots up; and our aversion to sibling- incest increases.
One of the primary elements that’s kept me away from indulging in the wet and wistful pleasures of a good romance novel is that the sex was never rough enough and men were always drippy. They were either counts, billionaires, cowboys, or some other sort of amorphous type of “stud” that I’ve never encountered in Real Life, all of them talking like overly eager participants in a Renaissance Festival or dull vampires. BDSM novels provided no relief, either; with their protocols, safe-words, props, and theatrics—all feel as tedious to me as a Japanese tea ceremony. Or just like horny LARPing.
Call it a failure of imagination, but I need some verisimilitude in my romance reading to keep my attentions away from the kingdom of broadband pornography moaning my name.
Thankfully, mid-way through the RT Booklovers’ conference that Kelly Faircloth and I attended last week, she and a fellow romance lover suggested that I give Cara McKenna’s Willing Victim a spin. The book, they said, was a cult hit for women who like it rough—featuring deftly drawn, complicated men who do not have the ability to shapeshift or sparkle.
I devoured the novella in one night. Willing Victim centers around Flynn, a part-time-boxer, and Laurel, a wayward woman in her late twenties with an engineering degree who has put 0ff adulthood after her mother’s suicide. After being invited to one of Flynn’s fights, Laurel is introduced to one of Flynn’s current lovers, Pam, who asks Laurel to join her and Flynn back at his apartment for the main event.
David Epstein, a professor at Columbia University, has been arrested and charged with incest for allegedly having a consensual sexual relationship with his adult daughter. The Columbia Spectator reported the news just this morning and it has already made international headlines. It’s a testament to the strength of the incest taboo, not to mention our thirst for new twists on the classic student-teacher sex scandal. In this case, the 46-year-old political science professor isn’t alleged to have had sex with one of his students but rather his 24-year-old daughter, who is in the same age bracket as most of his students. What’s more, his wife is a tenured professor at the university.
It has all the sordid ingredients to supply tabloid headlines for days, but far more interesting — at least in my nerdy universe — are the laws behind this case and others like it. After all, the relationship in this case allegedly began after Epstein’s daughter reached the age of consent. It isn’t a clear-cut case of child abuse, and there are no allegations that the three-year-long relationship carried on without the daughter’s consent. Although, as we saw with Mackenzie Phillips , many argue incestuous relationships between parent and adult child can never truly be consensual. I went to law professor J. Dean Carro, who defended a noteworthy case in which a man was convicted of incest for having sex with his 22-year-old stepdaughter, to better understand how our legal system tackles this near-universal taboo.
The prosecution of “consensual” adult incest is relatively rare because most cases often don’t come to the surface. “Unless somebody becomes aware of it, it occurs and people never report it,” he said. When it is reported, it’s usually because the other parent finds out about it, he said. And, if it involves someone in any way connected to fame or prestige — an Ivy League school, say — you can guarantee the media will find out about it.
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