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The Edo period ( 江戸時代 , Edo jidai ? ) or Tokugawa period ( 徳川時代 , Tokugawa jidai ? ) is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan , when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyo . The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social order, isolationist foreign policies, a stable population and popular enjoyment of arts and culture. The shogunate was officially established in Edo on March 24, 1603, by Tokugawa Ieyasu . The period came to an end with the Meiji Restoration on May 3, 1868, after the fall of Edo .

A revolution took place from the time of the Kamakura shogunate , which existed with the Tenno 's court, to the Tokugawa , when the bushi became the unchallenged rulers in what historian Edwin O. Reischauer called a "centralized feudal " form of government. Instrumental in the rise of the new bakufu was Tokugawa Ieyasu , the main beneficiary of the achievements of Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi . Already powerful, Ieyasu profited by his transfer to the rich Kantō area. He maintained two million koku of land, a new headquarters at Edo , a strategically situated castle town (the future Tokyo ), and also had an additional two million koku of land and thirty-eight vassals under his control. After Hideyoshi's death, Ieyasu moved quickly to seize control from the Toyotomi family.

Ieyasu's victory over the western daimyo at the Battle of Sekigahara (October 21, 1600, or in the Japanese calendar on the 15th day of the ninth month of the fifth year of the Keichō era) gave him virtual control of all Japan . He rapidly abolished numerous enemy daimyo houses, reduced others, such as that of the Toyotomi, and redistributed the spoils of war to his family and allies. Ieyasu still failed to achieve complete control of the western daimyo, but his assumption of the title of shogun helped consolidate the alliance system. After further strengthening his power base, Ieyasu installed his son Hidetada (1579–1632) as shogun and himself as retired shogun in 1605. The Toyotomi were still a significant threat, and Ieyasu devoted the next decade to their eradication. In 1615, the Tokugawa army destroyed the Toyotomi stronghold at Osaka .

The Tokugawa (or Edo) period brought 250 years of stability to Japan . The political system evolved into what historians call bakuhan , a combination of the terms bakufu and han (domains) to describe the government and society of the period. [1] In the bakuhan , the shogun had national authority and the daimyo had regional authority. This represented a new unity in the feudal structure, which featured an increasingly large bureaucracy to administer the mixture of centralized and decentralized authorities. The Tokugawa became more powerful during their first century of rule: land redistribution gave them nearly seven million koku , control of the most important cities, and a land assessment system reaping great revenues.

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Utagawa Kunitoshi, “Newly Published Cat’s Games” (1884) (images courtesy of the Japan Society) Cats are the darlings of the internet, but a new exhibition ...

The Edo period (江戸時代, Edo jidai?) or Tokugawa period (徳川時代, Tokugawa jidai?) is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when ...

Tokugawa period , also called Edo period , (1603–1867), the final period of traditional Japan, a time of internal peace, political stability, and economic growth ...

The Edo Period in Japanese History . Six-fold screen; ... Edo period Japan was ruled by the Tokugawa family, with each successive head assuming the rank of Shogun.

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There are thousands of modeling agencies listed on the world wide web, but in many cases, they're nothing more than web pages offering pictures of scantily clothed young girls, wearing thongs, and placed in provocative and sexually suggestive poses. These sites advertise "100% No Nude" photos, yet, the pictures that are offered are sickening to anyone who has young daughters.

Of course, there are legitimate modeling agencies throughout the country, and it's best for one to seek them out locally prior to searching the net that promises to make stars of aspiring or established young models. Recently, a friend of a friend had engaged in a modeling and acting session and the web address had been given to my friend so she could view the her friend's progress. Everything appeared on the up-and-up and the session went well. There were several links on the page that had been viewed, and when one had selected, it opened a new site offering pictures of girls between the ages of 6 and 13 in very scantily attire.

My first thought was, "Where are the parents when these shoots are taking place?" Surely I thought, most of the parents of these girls didn't know the pictures were taken - I would allow no one to take those types of pictures of my daughter.

One of the problems one will encounter when searching the net for a legitimate modeling agency is not knowing what will open when clicking a link. Some pages offer several links which are placed on a page as banners. The pictures on MOST of these banners are disturbing in the way that they offer photos of teen or preteen girls in thongs or underwear in very provocative poses.

Cats are the darlings of the internet, but a new exhibition coming to Manhattan’s Japan Society this spring brings a different perspective to bear on our feline friends : Life of Cats: Selections from the Hiraki Ukiyo-E Collection will showcase woodblock prints of cats from the Edo Period (1615–1867).

In many of the prints on display in the Life of Cats , cats are dignified, even courtly, animals. They take their place alongside well-coiffed ladies, strolling around the grounds of palaces and wielding fancy fans. Occasionally, they even don aristocratic apparel; often, they are decidedly sophisticated, bordering on human.

The exhibition, which will be divided into five categories, “Cats and People,” “Cats as People,” “Carts versus People,” “Cats Transformed,” and “Cats and Play,” will shed some light on the status and cultural implications of cats in a different time and place. In a world so inundated with cat imagery, we would do well to expand our feline horizons, seeking out a more refined menagerie than the one that typically graces our computer screens.

Life of Cats: Selections from the Hiraki Ukiyo-E Collection will be at Japan Society (333 East 47th Street, Midtown, Manhattan) from March 13 through June 7 .

Many objects in the V&A's collections come from the Edo period (1615 - 1868), a period of great significance in Japan's history. At the beginning of the seventeenth century, the country was unified under the Tokugawa family after years of civil unrest.

The following years were ones of unprecedented peace and prosperity, prompting an increase in artistic, cultural and social development. Although Japan remained a basically agrarian society, towns and cities grew and craft production flourished. Improved transport and communication networks meant that for the first time even the most remote areas had access to goods produced in other parts of the country.

Edo period Japan was ruled by the Tokugawa family, with each successive head assuming the rank of Shogun. This was bestowed by the Emperor who, during the Edo period, was merely a figurehead and exercised no political authority. The Tokugawa shogonate created a strict 'four class' social order in order to stabilise the country . Below the shogun were the military lords of each province. Both shogun and lords were served by retainers called samurai who acted as soldiers and officials. The samurai followed a code of conduct called Bushido (The Way of the Warrior), which stressed the mastery of martial arts, frugality, loyalty, courage and honour unto death.  Tempered by Confucianism and Zen Buddhism, the samurai was expected to be educated, refined, honest and wise.

Below the military were three other main social groups. Next in social standing were peasants, the main producers of the rice crop that was taxed to support the needs of the ruling class. Below the farmers in status were the artisans and craftworkers who produced non-agricultural goods. In the lowest social group were merchants who were not directly involved with production.

Shunga ( 春画 ? ) is a Japanese term for erotic art . Most shunga are a type of ukiyo-e , usually executed in woodblock print format. While rare, there are extant erotic painted handscrolls which predate the Ukiyo-e movement. [1] Translated literally, the Japanese word shunga means picture of spring ; "spring" is a common euphemism for sex.

The ukiyo-e movement as a whole sought to express an idealisation of contemporary urban life and appeal to the new chōnin class. Following the aesthetics of everyday life, Edo period shunga varied widely in its depictions of sexuality. As a subset of ukiyo-e it was enjoyed by all social groups in the Edo period, despite being out of favour with the shogunate. Almost all ukiyo-e artists made shunga at some point in their careers.

Shunga was heavily influenced by illustrations in Chinese medicine manuals beginning in the Muromachi era (1336 to 1573). Zhou Fang , a great T'ang Dynasty Chinese erotic painter, is also thought to have been influential. He, like many erotic artists of his time and place, tended to exaggerate the size of the genital organs, a common shunga topos . While the literal meaning of the word " shunga " is significant, it is in fact a contraction of shunkyū-higi-ga (春宮秘戯画), the Japanese pronunciation for Chinese sets of twelve scrolls depicting the twelve sexual acts that the crown prince had to carry out as an expression of yin yang . [1]

The Japanese influences of shunga date back to the Heian period (794 to 1185). [2] At this point, it was found among the courtier class. Through the medium of narrative handscrolls , sexual scandals from the imperial court or the monasteries were depicted, and the characters tended to be limited to courtiers and monks . [1]

Porcelain production began in Japan in the early seventeenth century, several hundred years after it had first been made in China during the Tang dynasty (618–906) ( 26.292.98 ). This refined white ceramic requires more advanced technology than other ceramic types. The vessels are fired at very high temperatures so that they are strong and vitrified, as opposed to low-fired earthenware, which is porous and easily breakable. Unlike stoneware, which is high-fired but can be made from many different types of clay, porcelain is made from a specific clay mixture that includes a soft, white variety called kaolin. The smooth, semi-translucent surface of porcelain is ideal for painting delicate designs, and has been prized in both the East and West .

The first porcelain made in Japan by these Korean potters is known as early Imari ( 1975.268.495 ). “Imari” refers to a port near the Arita kilns, from which these wares were shipped to the rest of the country. Since these porcelains were primarily for domestic consumption, the term “early” is added to distinguish them from later wares also classified as “Imari” which were typically for export. Most early Imari pieces feature designs painted in cobalt blue on a white ground, then coated in a transparent glaze, in the style known as underglaze blue ( 1975.268.477 ). The porcelain has a coarse, grainy texture and the designs are generally carried out by a free, fluid hand. The technique of painting pictoral designs under a clear glaze was sometimes employed on Karatsu ware, so early Imari may have in part stemmed from this earlier tradition.

Early Imari was probably also inspired by underglaze blue porcelain manufactured at kilns in the south of China. These heavy, rough wares with flowing blue brushstrokes were exported to Japan around the beginning of the seventeenth century . They differ significantly from the varieties of Chinese underglaze blue that were exported to the West from the Jingdezhen kiln, which have structured, stylized patterns. The less formal wares from the southern kilns conformed more to Japanese taste of the time, which was inspired by the tea ceremony and favored a rustic, simple appearance.

The porcelain the Dutch brought to Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was some of the first Japanese art to which Europeans were exposed. However, these ceramics were not a direct reflection of indigenous styles because they were consciously designed to cater to Western tastes. To ensure that they would find a ready market, the Dutch often made wooden or earthenware models of designs they believed would be appealing to Europeans, and sent those to Japan to be copied. Therefore, some Japanese ceramics are decorated with designs credited to Dutch artists, such as the draughtsman Cornelis Pronk ( 2002.447.123 ). Models were also used to demonstrate European vessel shapes for the Japanese potters, who would have been unfamiliar with those forms ( 79.2.176a,b ).

De Edoperiode (江戸時代, Edo-jidai ) of Tokugawa-periode (徳川時代, Tokugawa-jidai ) is een gedeelte van de geschiedenis van Japan die loopt van 24 maart 1603 tot 3 mei 1868 . Gedurende deze periode regeerde het Tokugawa-shogunaat , dat in 1603 officieel werd gevestigd door Tokugawa Ieyasu .

De naam Edoperiode wordt gebruikt omdat het shogunaat, en dus de macht, in Edo (het huidige Tokyo ) gezeteld was. Een veel gebruikte andere naam voor deze periode is de Tokugawaperiode, naar de heersende dynastie van Shoguns. De shoguns werden bijgestaan door een grote administratieve regeringseenheid, de bakufu . De bakufu had ook domeinen, maar verreweg de meeste domeinen stonden onder het directe gezag van een landheer, een daimyo . Deze domeinen werden han genoemd. De regeringsvorm in de Edoperiode wordt dan ook het bakuhan -systeem genoemd (bakuhan is een afkorting van bakufu-han).

Gedurende de Edoperiode werden de externe politieke, economische en godsdienstige invloeden op Japan sterk beperkt. Alleen China , Korea , het Ryukyu Koninkrijk en Nederland hadden het recht om met Japan handel te drijven. Kooplieden uit China en Portugal werden, speciale gelegenheden uitgesloten, niet toegestaan om enclaves die speciaal voor de buitenlandse handel waren gereserveerd, te verlaten. De Nederlanders zaten vanaf 1609 op Hirado en vanaf 1641 op het eilandje Deshima , voor de kust van Nagasaki . Burgers van andere landen riskeerden de doodstraf als ze Japan zouden bezoeken.

Dit afgesloten beleid was overigens niet vreemd binnen het Azië van die tijd. Qing China en Yi Korea hanteerden een soortgelijk buitenlands beleid. De Japanners zelf zijn dan ook pas in termen als "seclusief" gaan denken in de negentiende eeuw, toen ze vernamen dat de Europeanen dit beleid op die manier omschreven.

Mason, Penelope. History of Japanese Art . Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.

Singer, Robert T., ed. Edo: Art in Japan, 1615–1868 . Washington: D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1998.

Google Chrome suddenly doesn't open any web pages, neither the Chrome settings page (chrome://settings/), extensions page ( chrome://extensions/ ) or any other page/setting under Chrome menu. All other browsers (e.g. Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, etc.) work perfectly. This is probably due to a malware/virus that corrupts Google Chrome settings and compromises its preferences file.

In particular, the following problems – symptoms appear when you try to open Google Chrome browser:

If you face one of the above errors or symptoms, while using Google Chrome, then try the following procedure to resolve your problem(s).

2. At “ Compatibility ” tab, uncheck the “ Run this Program in compatibility mode for :” checkbox and press “ OK ”.